Postfix: can send but can't receive

Discussion in 'Apple' started by osiris, Jul 8, 2006.

  1. osiris

    osiris Guest

    I'm running OSX 10.4.7.

    I can do: telnet 127.0.0.1 25 successfully.
    I can send mail to but can't receive from .
    If tries to email , a bounce is returned.

    The config file, /etc/postfix/main.cf, is probably the culprit.
    I've modified the following:

    myhostname
    mydomain
    mydestination
    mynetworks

    and understand that I probably need to set

    inet_interfaces

    to something other than "localhost".
    But I'm unsure of what should be on the righthandside of inet_interfaces.

    The command, postfix check, returns null.

    Below is the untested shell script of what I've done interactively
    on the command line.

    Thanks for any help in getting this to work.



    ========== INCOMPLETE ======================================================
    #! /bin/sh -f

    install_startup_items()
    {
    FOLDER=/System/Library/StartupItems/Postfix
    if [ ! -d $FOLDER ] ; then
    mkdir -p $FOLDER
    fi
    cd $FOLDER

    ### HERE DOCUMENT BEGIN
    cat << EOF >> Postfix
    #!/bin/sh

    .. /etc/rc.common

    StartService()
    {
    if [ "${MAILSERVER:=-YES-}" = "-YES-" ]; then
    /usr/sbin/postfix start
    fi
    }

    StopService()
    {
    /usr/sbin/postfix stop
    }

    RestartService()
    {
    /usr/sbin/postfix reload
    }

    RunService "$1"
    EOF
    ### HERE DOCUMENT END

    ### HERE DOCUMENT BEGIN
    cat << EOF >> StartupParameters.plist
    {
    Description = "postfix";
    Provides = ("Mailserver");
    OrderPreference = "Early";
    Messages =
    {
    start = "Starting postfix";
    stop = "Stopping postfix";
    };
    }
    EOF
    ### HERE DOCUMENT END

    chown -R 0:0 $FOLDER
    chmod +rx $FOLDER/Postfix
    }


    require_root()
    {
    # Ensure that user is root (sudo -s)
    #
    if [ "`whoami`" != "root" ] ; then
    echo "$N : can only be executed by user root"
    echo "$N : exiting to shell"
    exit 0
    fi
    }


    require_tiger()
    {
    OS="`sw_vers|grep ^ProductVersion:|cut -f2|awk -F. '{printf "%d\n",$2}'`"
    if [ "$OS" -lt "4" ] ; then
    echo "$N : Postfix is only bundled on Mac OS X 10.4 or greater"
    echo "$N : exiting to shell"
    exit 0
    fi
    }


    mailserver_defined()
    {
    egrep "^MAILSERVER=-(YES|NO)-" /etc/hostconfig
    }


    ### main

    N=`basename $0`
    DOL=$

    require_tiger
    require_root
    postfix start
    install_startup_items

    if [ `mailserver_defined` = "" ] ; then
    echo "MAILSERVER=-YES-" >> /etc/hostconfig
    else
    perl -i~ -pe 's/^(MAILSERVER=).*/$1-YES-/' /etc/hostconfig
    fi

    # Edit /etc/postfix/main.cf

    postfix reload
     
    osiris, Jul 8, 2006
    #1
    1. Advertisements

  2. What specifically is in the bounce message?? That's going to tell us
    more than the startup script or comments about the main.cf file (without
    details).
    How are thse set?
    It depends. "all" is useful to listen to all the interfaces. localhost
    might only listen on 127.0.0.1 which is probably not the correct interface.

    If you can post the bounce message, that would help a lot. Or, if you
    prefer, contact me at the email address in my .sig and I'll be happy
    to help.

    -Stephen
     
    Stephen Adams, Jul 8, 2006
    #2
    1. Advertisements

  3. Maybe we could see the bounced message? That would be the fastest way
    to a clue.
     
    Elden Fenison, Jul 8, 2006
    #3
  4. Localhost is fine if one is using fetchmail to bring in the mail. If
    one's system is actually an MX receiver for a domain then of course one
    would want to enable other interfaces besides just localhost.
     
    Elden Fenison, Jul 8, 2006
    #4
  5. osiris

    osiris Guest



    diff main.cf main.cf.orig
    68d67
    < myhostname = osireion.abydos.kmt
    72d70
    <
    78d75
    < mydomain = abydos.kmt
    94d90
    < myorigin = $myhostname
    110d105
    < inet_interfaces = all
    158d152
    < mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain, localhost
    259d252
    < mynetworks = 128.xxx.xxx.0/24, 127.0.0.0/8



    As you can see, I set "interfaces = all" and that allowed me to
    send mail successfully. However, one other problem exists.
    I want my return address to be $myhostname which I thought
    I would accomplish by using myorigin set to $myhostname --
    yet I'm getting $mydomain on the right side of the atsign.

    Thanks for your help, Stephen.
     
    osiris, Jul 8, 2006
    #5
  6. osiris

    osiris Guest

    Ooops! I am not successfully receiving mail.
    I just confused which machine was receiving
    so I'm back to square one.
     
    osiris, Jul 8, 2006
    #6
  7. osiris

    osiris Guest


    ----- The following addresses had transient non-fatal errors -----


    ----- Transcript of session follows -----
    ... Deferred: Connection timed out with osireion.abydos.kmt
    Warning: message still undelivered after 4 hours
    Will keep trying until message is 5 days old
     
    osiris, Jul 8, 2006
    #7
  8. That's going to be set in your mail client.
     
    Elden Fenison, Jul 8, 2006
    #8
  9. osiris

    osiris Guest

    Well, thanks, Elden, but that's not really true.
    I've been using command-line mail (/usr/bin/mail) almost exclusively
    since the Eighties and my return address has always been correct
    under Solaris using Sendmail.

    I appreciate your help though.
     
    osiris, Jul 8, 2006
    #9
  10. osiris

    Philo D Guest

    Not answering the question, but maybe a help to others.
    Non-experts who want to enable Postfix under MacOS X
    can get a shareware GUI for it called: Postfix Enabler.
    See versiontracker.com
     
    Philo D, Jul 8, 2006
    #10
  11. Assuming you can connect on 127.0.0.1, this sounds like you are being
    blocked by a firewall - did you open port 25 in the Mac firewall??

    -Stephen
     
    Stephen Adams, Jul 8, 2006
    #11
  12. I assume that you can connect on port 25 with the 127.0.0.1 address, and
    that postfix is running. If that's the case, and you have 'all in the
    "inet_interfaces" setting, then check your Mac firewall and make sure
    that port 25 is open.

    The bounce is that you can't connect to postfix (for some reason)...

    -Stephen
     
    Stephen Adams, Jul 8, 2006
    #12
  13. Try this:

    masquerade_domains = !osireion.abydos.kmt

    Tells postfix not to try to strip the hostname.

    FYI, I used /bin/mail for a LONG time, then mailx. Then elm. Now
    I use 'mutt' for all my terminal-based email. (I use nn to read news).

    'mutt' should be available on versiontracker, or via fink...

    -Stephen
     
    Stephen Adams, Jul 8, 2006
    #13
  14. That would probably be a good idea. Also, if you are looking
    for an excellent book on Postfix:

    "The Book of Postfix", Hildebrandt & Ketter, No Starch Press, 2005

    -Stephen
     
    Stephen Adams, Jul 8, 2006
    #14

  15. Yeah, sorry. Guess I should have asked what your mail client was. I
    know when using something like Mutt, it is set in the client.
     
    Elden Fenison, Jul 8, 2006
    #15
  16. osiris

    osiris Guest


    Yes. I can connect on 127.0.0.1 and I did open port 25 in the
    Sharing System Pref. However, I'm not entirely sure that I did this
    correctly because when I use nmap from my Solaris box to see
    open ports on the 10.4.7 iMac G5, it shows only afp, ssh, http,
    svrloc and cadlock as open. I went into Sharing/Firewall
    and clicked the New button, clicked Other for the "Port Name",
    entered 25 for the "TCP Port Number(s)", SMTP for the "Description"
    and clicked OK. Shouldn't that have worked? However, this must
    be the problem since 'sudo ipfw list' is giving me strange output
    when I ssh in:

    65535 allow ip from any to any

    which I know isn't right. However, I'm at home right now and
    can't look at my office Mac's Sharing System Pref any other way
    to see if I must have turned on/off Sharing in my troubleshooting.

    Thanks for your help.
     
    osiris, Jul 8, 2006
    #16
  17. Sounds like the Firewall isn't running, or somehow became corrupt.
    Can you connect on other ports like ssh?

    If it's telling you the truth, nothing is being blocked, but I would
    be suspicious of that. You might try unchecking/removing all the
    ports you have enabled in the Firewall, then stop it. Reboot,
    start it again and re-enable them. Make sure that the firewall
    shows the correct output. The 2nd to last rule should be something
    like: 12190 deny tcp from any to any

    -Stephen
     
    Stephen Adams, Jul 8, 2006
    #17
  18. osiris

    osiris Guest

    Actually, I now recall that I turned off the Firewall last night
    before I departed my office just to see if receiving mail was
    being blocked by the firewall. It doesn't look like that's
    the case.

    Thanks.
     
    osiris, Jul 9, 2006
    #18
  19. OK. Then it's something about postfix for sure. Perhaps if you post
    then entire main.cf and master.cf (or email them to me, if you prefer)
    we can find something...

    -Stephen
     
    Stephen Adams, Jul 9, 2006
    #19
  20. osiris

    osiris Guest

    OK. Then it's something about postfix for sure. Perhaps if you post
    then entire main.cf and master.cf (or email them to me, if you prefer)
    we can find something...

    -Stephen[/QUOTE]


    I haven't modified master.cf at all (should I have?) but
    here it is below. My modifications to main.cf (further below)
    can be seen in a brief form in the diff below:

    osireion:/etc/postfix# diff master.cf master.cf.orig
    osireion:/etc/postfix# diff main.cf main.cf.orig
    68d67
    < myhostname = osireion.abydos.kmt
    72d70
    <
    78d75
    < mydomain = abydos.kmt
    94d90
    < myorigin = $myhostname
    110d105
    < inet_interfaces = all
    158d152
    < mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain, localhost
    259d252
    < mynetworks = 128.xxx.xxx.0/24, 127.0.0.0/8
    osireion:/etc/postfix#

    Thanks!


    ###### /etc/postfix/master.cf

    #
    # Postfix master process configuration file. Each logical line
    # describes how a Postfix daemon program should be run.
    #
    # A logical line starts with non-whitespace, non-comment text.
    # Empty lines and whitespace-only lines are ignored, as are comment
    # lines whose first non-whitespace character is a `#'.
    # A line that starts with whitespace continues a logical line.
    #
    # The fields that make up each line are described below. A "-" field
    # value requests that a default value be used for that field.
    #
    # Service: any name that is valid for the specified transport type
    # (the next field). With INET transports, a service is specified as
    # host:port. The host part (and colon) may be omitted. Either host
    # or port may be given in symbolic form or in numeric form. Examples
    # for the SMTP server: localhost:smtp receives mail via the loopback
    # interface only; 10025 receives mail on port 10025.
    #
    # Transport type: "inet" for Internet sockets, "unix" for UNIX-domain
    # sockets, "fifo" for named pipes.
    #
    # Private: whether or not access is restricted to the mail system.
    # Default is private service. Internet (inet) sockets can't be private.
    #
    # Unprivileged: whether the service runs with root privileges or as
    # the owner of the Postfix system (the owner name is controlled by the
    # mail_owner configuration variable in the main.cf file). Only the
    # pipe, virtual and local delivery daemons require privileges.
    #
    # Chroot: whether or not the service runs chrooted to the mail queue
    # directory (pathname is controlled by the queue_directory configuration
    # variable in the main.cf file). Presently, all Postfix daemons can run
    # chrooted, except for the pipe, virtual and local delivery daemons.
    # The proxymap server can run chrooted, but doing so defeats most of
    # the purpose of having that service in the first place.
    # The files in the examples/chroot-setup subdirectory describe how
    # to set up a Postfix chroot environment for your type of machine.
    #
    # Wakeup time: automatically wake up the named service after the
    # specified number of seconds. A ? at the end of the wakeup time
    # field requests that wake up events be sent only to services that
    # are actually being used. Specify 0 for no wakeup. Presently, only
    # the pickup, queue manager and flush daemons need a wakeup timer.
    #
    # Note: wakeup times for pickup, qmgr and flush are set to never to
    # allow for OS X desktop sleep.
    #
    # Max procs: the maximum number of processes that may execute this
    # service simultaneously. Default is to use a globally configurable
    # limit (the default_process_limit configuration parameter in main.cf).
    # Specify 0 for no process count limit.
    #
    # Command + args: the command to be executed. The command name is
    # relative to the Postfix program directory (pathname is controlled by
    # the daemon_directory configuration variable). Adding one or more
    # -v options turns on verbose logging for that service; adding a -D
    # option enables symbolic debugging (see the debugger_command variable
    # in the main.cf configuration file). See individual command man pages
    # for specific command-line options, if any.
    #
    # General main.cf options can be overridden for specific services.
    # To override one or more main.cf options, specify them as arguments
    # below, preceding each option by "-o". There must be no whitespace
    # in the option itself (separate multiple values for an option by
    # commas).
    #
    # In order to use the "uucp" message tranport below, set up entries
    # in the transport table.
    #
    # In order to use the "cyrus" message transport below, configure it
    # in main.cf as the mailbox_transport.
    #
    # SPECIFY ONLY PROGRAMS THAT ARE WRITTEN TO RUN AS POSTFIX DAEMONS.
    # ALL DAEMONS SPECIFIED HERE MUST SPEAK A POSTFIX-INTERNAL PROTOCOL.
    #
    # DO NOT SHARE THE POSTFIX QUEUE BETWEEN MULTIPLE POSTFIX INSTANCES.
    #
    # ==========================================================================
    # service type private unpriv chroot wakeup maxproc command + args
    # (yes) (yes) (yes) (never) (100)
    # ==========================================================================
    smtp inet n - n - - smtpd
    #submission inet n - n - - smtpd
    # -o smtpd_etrn_restrictions=reject
    #smtps inet n - n - - smtpd
    # -o smtpd_tls_wrappermode=yes -o smtpd_sasl_auth_enable=yes
    #submission inet n - n - - smtpd
    # -o smtpd_etrn_restrictions=reject
    # -o smtpd_enforce_tls=yes -o smtpd_sasl_auth_enable=yes
    #628 inet n - n - - qmqpd
    pickup fifo n - n 60 1 pickup
    cleanup unix n - n - 0 cleanup
    qmgr fifo n - n - 1 qmgr
    #qmgr fifo n - n - 1 nqmgr
    #tlsmgr fifo - - n - 1 tlsmgr
    rewrite unix - - n - - trivial-rewrite
    bounce unix - - n - 0 bounce
    defer unix - - n - 0 bounce
    trace unix - - n - 0 bounce
    verify unix - - n - 1 verify
    flush unix n - n - 0 flush
    proxymap unix - - n - - proxymap
    smtp unix - - n - - smtp
    relay unix - - n - - smtp
    # -o smtp_helo_timeout=5 -o smtp_connect_timeout=5
    showq unix n - n - - showq
    error unix - - n - - error
    local unix - n n - - local
    virtual unix - n n - - virtual
    lmtp unix - - n - - lmtp
    anvil unix - - n - 1 anvil
    #
    # Interfaces to non-Postfix software. Be sure to examine the manual
    # pages of the non-Postfix software to find out what options it wants.
    #
    # maildrop. See the Postfix MAILDROP_README file for details.
    #
    maildrop unix - n n - - pipe
    flags=DRhu user=vmail argv=/usr/local/bin/maildrop -d ${recipient}
    #
    # The Cyrus deliver program has changed incompatibly, multiple times.
    #
    old-cyrus unix - n n - - pipe
    flags=R user=cyrusimap argv=/cyrus/bin/deliver -e -m ${extension} ${user}
    # Cyrus 2.1.5 (Amos Gouaux)
    # Also specify in main.cf: cyrus_destination_recipient_limit=1
    cyrus unix - n n - 10 pipe
    user=cyrusimap argv=/usr/bin/cyrus/bin/deliver -e -r ${sender} -m ${extension} ${user}
    uucp unix - n n - - pipe
    flags=Fqhu user=uucp argv=uux -r -n -z -a$sender - $nexthop!rmail ($recipient)
    ifmail unix - n n - - pipe
    flags=F user=ftn argv=/usr/lib/ifmail/ifmail -r $nexthop ($recipient)
    bsmtp unix - n n - - pipe
    flags=Fq. user=foo argv=/usr/local/sbin/bsmtp -f $sender $nexthop $recipient



    ###### main.cf

    # Global Postfix configuration file. This file lists only a subset
    # of all 300+ parameters. See the postconf(5) manual page for a
    # complete list.
    #
    # The general format of each line is: parameter = value. Lines
    # that begin with whitespace continue the previous line. A value can
    # contain references to other $names or ${name}s.
    #
    # NOTE - CHANGE NO MORE THAN 2-3 PARAMETERS AT A TIME, AND TEST IF
    # POSTFIX STILL WORKS AFTER EVERY CHANGE.

    # SOFT BOUNCE
    #
    # The soft_bounce parameter provides a limited safety net for
    # testing. When soft_bounce is enabled, mail will remain queued that
    # would otherwise bounce. This parameter disables locally-generated
    # bounces, and prevents the SMTP server from rejecting mail permanently
    # (by changing 5xx replies into 4xx replies). However, soft_bounce
    # is no cure for address rewriting mistakes or mail routing mistakes.
    #
    #soft_bounce = no

    # LOCAL PATHNAME INFORMATION
    #
    # The queue_directory specifies the location of the Postfix queue.
    # This is also the root directory of Postfix daemons that run chrooted.
    # See the files in examples/chroot-setup for setting up Postfix chroot
    # environments on different UNIX systems.
    #
    queue_directory = /private/var/spool/postfix

    # The command_directory parameter specifies the location of all
    # postXXX commands.
    #
    command_directory = /usr/sbin

    # The daemon_directory parameter specifies the location of all Postfix
    # daemon programs (i.e. programs listed in the master.cf file). This
    # directory must be owned by root.
    #
    daemon_directory = /usr/libexec/postfix

    # QUEUE AND PROCESS OWNERSHIP
    #
    # The mail_owner parameter specifies the owner of the Postfix queue
    # and of most Postfix daemon processes. Specify the name of a user
    # account THAT DOES NOT SHARE ITS USER OR GROUP ID WITH OTHER ACCOUNTS
    # AND THAT OWNS NO OTHER FILES OR PROCESSES ON THE SYSTEM. In
    # particular, don't specify nobody or daemon. PLEASE USE A DEDICATED
    # USER.
    #
    mail_owner = postfix

    # The default_privs parameter specifies the default rights used by
    # the local delivery agent for delivery to external file or command.
    # These rights are used in the absence of a recipient user context.
    # DO NOT SPECIFY A PRIVILEGED USER OR THE POSTFIX OWNER.
    #
    #default_privs = nobody

    # INTERNET HOST AND DOMAIN NAMES
    #
    # The myhostname parameter specifies the internet hostname of this
    # mail system. The default is to use the fully-qualified domain name
    # from gethostname(). $myhostname is used as a default value for many
    # other configuration parameters.
    #
    myhostname = osireion.abydos.kmt
    #myhostname = host.domain.tld
    #myhostname = virtual.domain.tld


    # The mydomain parameter specifies the local internet domain name.
    # The default is to use $myhostname minus the first component.
    # $mydomain is used as a default value for many other configuration
    # parameters.
    #
    mydomain = abydos.kmt
    #mydomain = domain.tld

    # SENDING MAIL
    #
    # The myorigin parameter specifies the domain that locally-posted
    # mail appears to come from. The default is to append $myhostname,
    # which is fine for small sites. If you run a domain with multiple
    # machines, you should (1) change this to $mydomain and (2) set up
    # a domain-wide alias database that aliases each user to
    # .
    #
    # For the sake of consistency between sender and recipient addresses,
    # myorigin also specifies the default domain name that is appended
    # to recipient addresses that have no @domain part.
    #
    myorigin = $myhostname
    #myorigin = $myhostname
    #myorigin = $mydomain

    # RECEIVING MAIL

    # The inet_interfaces parameter specifies the network interface
    # addresses that this mail system receives mail on. By default,
    # the software claims all active interfaces on the machine. The
    # parameter also controls delivery of mail to [email protected][ip.address].
    #
    # See also the proxy_interfaces parameter, for network addresses that
    # are forwarded to us via a proxy or network address translator.
    #
    # Note: you need to stop/start Postfix when this parameter changes.
    #
    inet_interfaces = all
    #inet_interfaces = all
    #inet_interfaces = $myhostname
    #inet_interfaces = $myhostname, localhost

    # The proxy_interfaces parameter specifies the network interface
    # addresses that this mail system receives mail on by way of a
    # proxy or network address translation unit. This setting extends
    # the address list specified with the inet_interfaces parameter.
    #
    # You must specify your proxy/NAT addresses when your system is a
    # backup MX host for other domains, otherwise mail delivery loops
    # will happen when the primary MX host is down.
    #
    #proxy_interfaces =
    #proxy_interfaces = 1.2.3.4

    # The mydestination parameter specifies the list of domains that this
    # machine considers itself the final destination for.
    #
    # These domains are routed to the delivery agent specified with the
    # local_transport parameter setting. By default, that is the UNIX
    # compatible delivery agent that lookups all recipients in /etc/passwd
    # and /etc/aliases or their equivalent.
    #
    # The default is $myhostname + localhost.$mydomain. On a mail domain
    # gateway, you should also include $mydomain.
    #
    # Do not specify the names of virtual domains - those domains are
    # specified elsewhere (see VIRTUAL_README).
    #
    # Do not specify the names of domains that this machine is backup MX
    # host for. Specify those names via the relay_domains settings for
    # the SMTP server, or use permit_mx_backup if you are lazy (see
    # STANDARD_CONFIGURATION_README).
    #
    # The local machine is always the final destination for mail addressed
    # to [email protected][the.net.work.address] of an interface that the mail system
    # receives mail on (see the inet_interfaces parameter).
    #
    # Specify a list of host or domain names, /file/name or type:table
    # patterns, separated by commas and/or whitespace. A /file/name
    # pattern is replaced by its contents; a type:table is matched when
    # a name matches a lookup key (the right-hand side is ignored).
    # Continue long lines by starting the next line with whitespace.
    #
    # See also below, section "REJECTING MAIL FOR UNKNOWN LOCAL USERS".
    #
    mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain, localhost
    #mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain, localhost
    #mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain, localhost, $mydomain
    #mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain, localhost, $mydomain,
    # mail.$mydomain, www.$mydomain, ftp.$mydomain

    # REJECTING MAIL FOR UNKNOWN LOCAL USERS
    #
    # The local_recipient_maps parameter specifies optional lookup tables
    # with all names or addresses of users that are local with respect
    # to $mydestination, $inet_interfaces or $proxy_interfaces.
    #
    # If this parameter is defined, then the SMTP server will reject
    # mail for unknown local users. This parameter is defined by default.
    #
    # To turn off local recipient checking in the SMTP server, specify
    # local_recipient_maps = (i.e. empty).
    #
    # The default setting assumes that you use the default Postfix local
    # delivery agent for local delivery. You need to update the
    # local_recipient_maps setting if:
    #
    # - You define $mydestination domain recipients in files other than
    # /etc/passwd, /etc/aliases, or the $virtual_alias_maps files.
    # For example, you define $mydestination domain recipients in
    # the $virtual_mailbox_maps files.
    #
    # - You redefine the local delivery agent in master.cf.
    #
    # - You redefine the "local_transport" setting in main.cf.
    #
    # - You use the "luser_relay", "mailbox_transport", or "fallback_transport"
    # feature of the Postfix local delivery agent (see local(8)).
    #
    # Details are described in the LOCAL_RECIPIENT_README file.
    #
    # Beware: if the Postfix SMTP server runs chrooted, you probably have
    # to access the passwd file via the proxymap service, in order to
    # overcome chroot restrictions. The alternative, having a copy of
    # the system passwd file in the chroot jail is just not practical.
    #
    # The right-hand side of the lookup tables is conveniently ignored.
    # In the left-hand side, specify a bare username, an @domain.tld
    # wild-card, or specify a address.
    #
    #local_recipient_maps = unix:passwd.byname $alias_maps
    #local_recipient_maps = proxy:unix:passwd.byname $alias_maps
    #local_recipient_maps =

    # The unknown_local_recipient_reject_code specifies the SMTP server
    # response code when a recipient domain matches $mydestination or
    # ${proxy,inet}_interfaces, while $local_recipient_maps is non-empty
    # and the recipient address or address local-part is not found.
    #
    # The default setting is 550 (reject mail) but it is safer to start
    # with 450 (try again later) until you are certain that your
    # local_recipient_maps settings are OK.
    #
    unknown_local_recipient_reject_code = 550

    # TRUST AND RELAY CONTROL

    # The mynetworks parameter specifies the list of "trusted" SMTP
    # clients that have more privileges than "strangers".
    #
    # In particular, "trusted" SMTP clients are allowed to relay mail
    # through Postfix. See the smtpd_recipient_restrictions parameter
    # in postconf(5).
    #
    # You can specify the list of "trusted" network addresses by hand
    # or you can let Postfix do it for you (which is the default).
    #
    # By default (mynetworks_style = subnet), Postfix "trusts" SMTP
    # clients in the same IP subnetworks as the local machine.
    # On Linux, this does works correctly only with interfaces specified
    # with the "ifconfig" command.
    #
    # Specify "mynetworks_style = class" when Postfix should "trust" SMTP
    # clients in the same IP class A/B/C networks as the local machine.
    # Don't do this with a dialup site - it would cause Postfix to "trust"
    # your entire provider's network. Instead, specify an explicit
    # mynetworks list by hand, as described below.
    #
    # Specify "mynetworks_style = host" when Postfix should "trust"
    # only the local machine.
    #
    #mynetworks_style = class
    #mynetworks_style = subnet
    #mynetworks_style = host

    # Alternatively, you can specify the mynetworks list by hand, in
    # which case Postfix ignores the mynetworks_style setting.
    #
    # Specify an explicit list of network/netmask patterns, where the
    # mask specifies the number of bits in the network part of a host
    # address.
    #
    # You can also specify the absolute pathname of a pattern file instead
    # of listing the patterns here. Specify type:table for table-based lookups
    # (the value on the table right-hand side is not used).
    #
    mynetworks = 128.xxx.xxx.0/24, 127.0.0.0/8
    #mynetworks = 168.100.189.0/28, 127.0.0.0/8
    #mynetworks = $config_directory/mynetworks
    #mynetworks = hash:/etc/postfix/network_table

    # The relay_domains parameter restricts what destinations this system will
    # relay mail to. See the smtpd_recipient_restrictions description in
    # postconf(5) for detailed information.
    #
    # By default, Postfix relays mail
    # - from "trusted" clients (IP address matches $mynetworks) to any destination,
    # - from "untrusted" clients to destinations that match $relay_domains or
    # subdomains thereof, except addresses with sender-specified routing.
    # The default relay_domains value is $mydestination.
    #
    # In addition to the above, the Postfix SMTP server by default accepts mail
    # that Postfix is final destination for:
    # - destinations that match $inet_interfaces or $proxy_interfaces,
    # - destinations that match $mydestination
    # - destinations that match $virtual_alias_domains,
    # - destinations that match $virtual_mailbox_domains.
    # These destinations do not need to be listed in $relay_domains.
    #
    # Specify a list of hosts or domains, /file/name patterns or type:name
    # lookup tables, separated by commas and/or whitespace. Continue
    # long lines by starting the next line with whitespace. A file name
    # is replaced by its contents; a type:name table is matched when a
    # (parent) domain appears as lookup key.
    #
    # NOTE: Postfix will not automatically forward mail for domains that
    # list this system as their primary or backup MX host. See the
    # permit_mx_backup restriction description in postconf(5).
    #
    #relay_domains = $mydestination

    # INTERNET OR INTRANET

    # The relayhost parameter specifies the default host to send mail to
    # when no entry is matched in the optional transport(5) table. When
    # no relayhost is given, mail is routed directly to the destination.
    #
    # On an intranet, specify the organizational domain name. If your
    # internal DNS uses no MX records, specify the name of the intranet
    # gateway host instead.
    #
    # In the case of SMTP, specify a domain, host, host:port, [host]:port,
    # [address] or [address]:port; the form [host] turns off MX lookups.
    #
    # If you're connected via UUCP, see also the default_transport parameter.
    #
    #relayhost = $mydomain
    #relayhost = [gateway.my.domain]
    #relayhost = [mailserver.isp.tld]
    #relayhost = uucphost
    #relayhost = [an.ip.add.ress]

    # REJECTING UNKNOWN RELAY USERS
    #
    # The relay_recipient_maps parameter specifies optional lookup tables
    # with all addresses in the domains that match $relay_domains.
    #
    # If this parameter is defined, then the SMTP server will reject
    # mail for unknown relay users. This feature is off by default.
    #
    # The right-hand side of the lookup tables is conveniently ignored.
    # In the left-hand side, specify an @domain.tld wild-card, or specify
    # a address.
    #
    #relay_recipient_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/relay_recipients

    # INPUT RATE CONTROL
    #
    # The in_flow_delay configuration parameter implements mail input
    # flow control. This feature is turned on by default, although it
    # still needs further development (it's disabled on SCO UNIX due
    # to an SCO bug).
    #
    # A Postfix process will pause for $in_flow_delay seconds before
    # accepting a new message, when the message arrival rate exceeds the
    # message delivery rate. With the default 100 SMTP server process
    # limit, this limits the mail inflow to 100 messages a second more
    # than the number of messages delivered per second.
    #
    # Specify 0 to disable the feature. Valid delays are 0..10.
    #
    #in_flow_delay = 1s

    # ADDRESS REWRITING
    #
    # The ADDRESS_REWRITING_README document gives information about
    # address masquerading or other forms of address rewriting including
    # username->Firstname.Lastname mapping.

    # ADDRESS REDIRECTION (VIRTUAL DOMAIN)
    #
    # The VIRTUAL_README document gives information about the many forms
    # of domain hosting that Postfix supports.

    # "USER HAS MOVED" BOUNCE MESSAGES
    #
    # See the discussion in the ADDRESS_REWRITING_README document.

    # TRANSPORT MAP
    #
    # See the discussion in the ADDRESS_REWRITING_README document.

    # ALIAS DATABASE
    #
    # The alias_maps parameter specifies the list of alias databases used
    # by the local delivery agent. The default list is system dependent.
    #
    # On systems with NIS, the default is to search the local alias
    # database, then the NIS alias database. See aliases(5) for syntax
    # details.
    #
    # If you change the alias database, run "postalias /etc/aliases" (or
    # wherever your system stores the mail alias file), or simply run
    # "newaliases" to build the necessary DBM or DB file.
    #
    # It will take a minute or so before changes become visible. Use
    # "postfix reload" to eliminate the delay.
    #
    #alias_maps = dbm:/etc/aliases
    #alias_maps = hash:/etc/aliases
    #alias_maps = hash:/etc/aliases, nis:mail.aliases
    #alias_maps = netinfo:/aliases

    # The alias_database parameter specifies the alias database(s) that
    # are built with "newaliases" or "sendmail -bi". This is a separate
    # configuration parameter, because alias_maps (see above) may specify
    # tables that are not necessarily all under control by Postfix.
    #
    #alias_database = dbm:/etc/aliases
    #alias_database = dbm:/etc/mail/aliases
    #alias_database = hash:/etc/aliases
    #alias_database = hash:/etc/aliases, hash:/opt/majordomo/aliases

    # ADDRESS EXTENSIONS (e.g., user+foo)
    #
    # The recipient_delimiter parameter specifies the separator between
    # user names and address extensions (user+foo). See canonical(5),
    # local(8), relocated(5) and virtual(5) for the effects this has on
    # aliases, canonical, virtual, relocated and .forward file lookups.
    # Basically, the software tries user+foo and .forward+foo before
    # trying user and .forward.
    #
    #recipient_delimiter = +

    # DELIVERY TO MAILBOX
    #
    # The home_mailbox parameter specifies the optional pathname of a
    # mailbox file relative to a user's home directory. The default
    # mailbox file is /var/spool/mail/user or /var/mail/user. Specify
    # "Maildir/" for qmail-style delivery (the / is required).
    #
    #home_mailbox = Mailbox
    #home_mailbox = Maildir/

    # The mail_spool_directory parameter specifies the directory where
    # UNIX-style mailboxes are kept. The default setting depends on the
    # system type.
    #
    #mail_spool_directory = /var/mail
    #mail_spool_directory = /var/spool/mail

    # The mailbox_command parameter specifies the optional external
    # command to use instead of mailbox delivery. The command is run as
    # the recipient with proper HOME, SHELL and LOGNAME environment settings.
    # Exception: delivery for root is done as $default_user.
    #
    # Other environment variables of interest: USER (recipient username),
    # EXTENSION (address extension), DOMAIN (domain part of address),
    # and LOCAL (the address localpart).
    #
    # Unlike other Postfix configuration parameters, the mailbox_command
    # parameter is not subjected to $parameter substitutions. This is to
    # make it easier to specify shell syntax (see example below).
    #
    # Avoid shell meta characters because they will force Postfix to run
    # an expensive shell process. Procmail alone is expensive enough.
    #
    # IF YOU USE THIS TO DELIVER MAIL SYSTEM-WIDE, YOU MUST SET UP AN
    # ALIAS THAT FORWARDS MAIL FOR ROOT TO A REAL USER.
    #
    #mailbox_command = /some/where/procmail
    #mailbox_command = /some/where/procmail -a "$EXTENSION"

    # The mailbox_transport specifies the optional transport in master.cf
    # to use after processing aliases and .forward files. This parameter
    # has precedence over the mailbox_command, fallback_transport and
    # luser_relay parameters.
    #
    # Specify a string of the form transport:nexthop, where transport is
    # the name of a mail delivery transport defined in master.cf. The
    # :nexthop part is optional. For more details see the sample transport
    # configuration file.
    #
    # NOTE: if you use this feature for accounts not in the UNIX password
    # file, then you must update the "local_recipient_maps" setting in
    # the main.cf file, otherwise the SMTP server will reject mail for
    # non-UNIX accounts with "User unknown in local recipient table".
    #
    #mailbox_transport = lmtp:unix:/file/name
    #mailbox_transport = cyrus

    # The fallback_transport specifies the optional transport in master.cf
    # to use for recipients that are not found in the UNIX passwd database.
    # This parameter has precedence over the luser_relay parameter.
    #
    # Specify a string of the form transport:nexthop, where transport is
    # the name of a mail delivery transport defined in master.cf. The
    # :nexthop part is optional. For more details see the sample transport
    # configuration file.
    #
    # NOTE: if you use this feature for accounts not in the UNIX password
    # file, then you must update the "local_recipient_maps" setting in
    # the main.cf file, otherwise the SMTP server will reject mail for
    # non-UNIX accounts with "User unknown in local recipient table".
    #
    #fallback_transport = lmtp:unix:/file/name
    #fallback_transport = cyrus
    #fallback_transport =

    # The luser_relay parameter specifies an optional destination address
    # for unknown recipients. By default, mail for [email protected]$mydestination,
    # [email protected][$inet_interfaces] or [email protected][$proxy_interfaces] is returned
    # as undeliverable.
    #
    # The following expansions are done on luser_relay: $user (recipient
    # username), $shell (recipient shell), $home (recipient home directory),
    # $recipient (full recipient address), $extension (recipient address
    # extension), $domain (recipient domain), $local (entire recipient
    # localpart), $recipient_delimiter. Specify ${name?value} or
    # ${name:value} to expand value only when $name does (does not) exist.
    #
    # luser_relay works only for the default Postfix local delivery agent.
    #
    # NOTE: if you use this feature for accounts not in the UNIX password
    # file, then you must specify "local_recipient_maps =" (i.e. empty) in
    # the main.cf file, otherwise the SMTP server will reject mail for
    # non-UNIX accounts with "User unknown in local recipient table".
    #
    #luser_relay = $
    #luser_relay = $
    #luser_relay = admin+$local

    # JUNK MAIL CONTROLS
    #
    # The controls listed here are only a very small subset. The file
    # SMTPD_ACCESS_README provides an overview.

    # The header_checks parameter specifies an optional table with patterns
    # that each logical message header is matched against, including
    # headers that span multiple physical lines.
    #
    # By default, these patterns also apply to MIME headers and to the
    # headers of attached messages. With older Postfix versions, MIME and
    # attached message headers were treated as body text.
    #
    # For details, see "man header_checks".
    #
    #header_checks = regexp:/etc/postfix/header_checks

    # FAST ETRN SERVICE
    #
    # Postfix maintains per-destination logfiles with information about
    # deferred mail, so that mail can be flushed quickly with the SMTP
    # "ETRN domain.tld" command, or by executing "sendmail -qRdomain.tld".
    # See the ETRN_README document for a detailed description.
    #
    # The fast_flush_domains parameter controls what destinations are
    # eligible for this service. By default, they are all domains that
    # this server is willing to relay mail to.
    #
    #fast_flush_domains = $relay_domains

    # SHOW SOFTWARE VERSION OR NOT
    #
    # The smtpd_banner parameter specifies the text that follows the 220
    # code in the SMTP server's greeting banner. Some people like to see
    # the mail version advertised. By default, Postfix shows no version.
    #
    # You MUST specify $myhostname at the start of the text. That is an
    # RFC requirement. Postfix itself does not care.
    #
    #smtpd_banner = $myhostname ESMTP $mail_name
    #smtpd_banner = $myhostname ESMTP $mail_name ($mail_version)

    # PARALLEL DELIVERY TO THE SAME DESTINATION
    #
    # How many parallel deliveries to the same user or domain? With local
    # delivery, it does not make sense to do massively parallel delivery
    # to the same user, because mailbox updates must happen sequentially,
    # and expensive pipelines in .forward files can cause disasters when
    # too many are run at the same time. With SMTP deliveries, 10
    # simultaneous connections to the same domain could be sufficient to
    # raise eyebrows.
    #
    # Each message delivery transport has its XXX_destination_concurrency_limit
    # parameter. The default is $default_destination_concurrency_limit for
    # most delivery transports. For the local delivery agent the default is 2.

    #local_destination_concurrency_limit = 2
    #default_destination_concurrency_limit = 20

    # DEBUGGING CONTROL
    #
    # The debug_peer_level parameter specifies the increment in verbose
    # logging level when an SMTP client or server host name or address
    # matches a pattern in the debug_peer_list parameter.
    #
    debug_peer_level = 2

    # The debug_peer_list parameter specifies an optional list of domain
    # or network patterns, /file/name patterns or type:name tables. When
    # an SMTP client or server host name or address matches a pattern,
    # increase the verbose logging level by the amount specified in the
    # debug_peer_level parameter.
    #
    #debug_peer_list = 127.0.0.1
    #debug_peer_list = some.domain

    # The debugger_command specifies the external command that is executed
    # when a Postfix daemon program is run with the -D option.
    #
    # Use "command .. & sleep 5" so that the debugger can attach before
    # the process marches on. If you use an X-based debugger, be sure to
    # set up your XAUTHORITY environment variable before starting Postfix.
    #
    debugger_command =
    PATH=/bin:/usr/bin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/X11R6/bin
    xxgdb $daemon_directory/$process_name $process_id & sleep 5

    # If you don't have X installed on the Postfix machine, try:
    # debugger_command =
    # PATH=/bin:/usr/bin:/usr/local/bin; export PATH; (echo cont;
    # echo where) | gdb $daemon_directory/$process_name $process_id 2>&1
    # >$config_directory/$process_name.$process_id.log & sleep 5

    # INSTALL-TIME CONFIGURATION INFORMATION
    #
    # The following parameters are used when installing a new Postfix version.
    #
    # sendmail_path: The full pathname of the Postfix sendmail command.
    # This is the Sendmail-compatible mail posting interface.
    #
    sendmail_path = /usr/sbin/sendmail

    # newaliases_path: The full pathname of the Postfix newaliases command.
    # This is the Sendmail-compatible command to build alias databases.
    #
    newaliases_path = /usr/bin/newaliases

    # mailq_path: The full pathname of the Postfix mailq command. This
    # is the Sendmail-compatible mail queue listing command.
    #
    mailq_path = /usr/bin/mailq

    # setgid_group: The group for mail submission and queue management
    # commands. This must be a group name with a numerical group ID that
    # is not shared with other accounts, not even with the Postfix account.
    #
    setgid_group = postdrop

    # html_directory: The location of the Postfix HTML documentation.
    #
    html_directory = no

    # manpage_directory: The location of the Postfix on-line manual pages.
    #
    manpage_directory = /usr/share/man

    # sample_directory: The location of the Postfix sample configuration files.
    # This parameter is obsolete as of Postfix 2.1.
    #
    sample_directory = /usr/share/doc/postfix/examples

    # readme_directory: The location of the Postfix README files.
    #
    readme_directory = /usr/share/doc/postfix

    # THE FOLLOWING DEFAULTS ARE SET BY APPLE
    #
    # bind to localhost only
    #
    inet_interfaces = localhost

    # turn off relaying for local subnet
    #
    mynetworks_style = host

    # mydomain_fallback: optional domain to use if mydomain is not set and
    # myhostname is not fully qualified. It is ignored if neither are true.
    #
    mydomain_fallback = localhost

    # The mailbox_size_limit parameter controls the maximal size of a
    # mailbox or maildir file (in fact, it limits the size of any file
    # that is written to upon local delivery) The default is 50 MBytes.
    # This limit must not be set smaller than the message size limit.
    #
    mailbox_size_limit = 0

    smtpd_tls_key_file =
     
    osiris, Jul 9, 2006
    #20
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